CTP-1 Magic 1

Survey:

  1. Discuss the importance and actions of the magico-religious function as it is seen within the context of general Indo-European culture. (minimum 100 words).

The Magico-Religious Function is made up of those whose responsibilities include the performing of sacrifices, funeral rites, divinations and their interpretations, as well as dream and auspice interpretations (Mallory 131).  Xenophon described those that hold this function as “Experts in everything concerning the Gods.”(Graf 20).  They were seen as specialists and were the spiritual leaders in the community.  Without them the needed rituals and sacrifices could not occur.

While Xenophon sees these people as experts and specialists, not everyone sees magic and religion as necessarily the same thing.

In Arcana Mundi, Luck lists four different variations of the relationship between magic and religion. They are:

 

Magic becomes religion

Religion attempts to reconcile personal powers after magic has failed

Religion and magic have common roots

Magic is a degenerate form of religion (4)

 

Plato made also distinction between religion and magic.  In magic, the practitioner is trying to force their will to be done by the gods or other beings.  They use coercion to compel these spirits to do what they want them to.  On the other hand, in a religion, the practitioners request or petition the spirits, but leave them to decide for themselves what kind of action they take, if they take any at all (Graf 27).

 

 

  1. Identify the terms used within one Indo-European language to identify ‘magic’ and ‘magician’ examining what these terms indicate about the position of the magician in that society and the practice of his or her art. (minimum 100 words)

 

The Greeks has a few words for different kinds of magic and magicians; pharmeka, goes and magi are three such terms (Graf 20).  Magi seems to have Persian origins and means “priest” (20).  These priests would oversee the religious rituals and sacrifices.  In Persia , the priests were held in high regard within society.  According to Plato, this was not necessarily so on the ancient Indo European world (21).  Magicians tended to be seen as more undesirable (Graf 25)and some were seen as those that would take advantage of others for monetary gain.  The Goes and Magos tended to be associated with wanders and travelers.  They lived outside the “normal” society.  They also practiced in private instead of at public rituals (27).  Most of the time participants in magical rites were not allowed to speak about what went on.  This led to mystery.  Mystery can lead to suspicion.  Suspicion can lead to fear.  Fear can lead to hate (27).  Unfortunately this seems to be the pattern that at least some ancient magical practitioners fell into.

 

  1. Discuss the existence and relative function of trance-journey magic within at least one Indo-European culture. (minimum 100 words)

 

At most Oracles, the Seer would enter into some sort of altered state to gain access to the knowledge the petitioner’s sought.  For onlookers, seeing a Seer in a trance state, possibly speaking in gibberish may have looked like madness (Luck 230).   It should come as no surprise then that the Greek terms for Seer and Insanity are so close linguistically.  The Greek word for Seer is “mantis” and insanity is “mania” (Luck 241 ).  The main difference between the two is that the Seer’s altered view of reality was only temporary (241).  Once in a trance state it was believed that the Seer’s soul would temporarily leave their body.  This is the time of divine communion.  A deity may appear directly to the Seer and answer questions posed (Graf 103).  Alternately, the Seer may have visions sent by the deity (Luck 242).  Either way, this shift allowed the seer access to knowledge beyond that of normal humans.

 

  1. Discuss the place of alphabetic symbolism as part of the symbolism of magical practice within one Indo-European culture. (minimum 150 words)

I believe that as soon as there was writing, people began using the written symbols for magical purposes.  The power of symbols is something that is evidenced even in today’s societies, although they are more likely to be found in logos rather than magical workings.   These easy to recognize symbols can be used as representations of larger things like the name of someone you wish to influence, a desired outcome to a situation, or even a quality you wish to foster within yourself (Luck 20).  Used this way, the letters could be carved into an amulet or talisman.  They can also be used in divination.  Casting lots, or divination using sortilege, is just one example of this.

A more direct divinatory method is illustrated by a Ouija type tool as related by Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus.  The tool was comprised of a metal disk with the letters of the Greek alphabet inscribed around its edge.  This disk was supported on wooden tripod and a pendulum was used to spell out the words that formed the answer to a question (Luck 256).

 

  1. Discuss three key magical techniques or symbols from one Indo-European culture. (minimum 100 words each)

                Various magical methodologies existed in the Greco-Roman cultures.  Three of these were bindings, amulets and divination.

Binding magic took on many forms. There were literal bindings where an object was physically bound, either to itself or something else, as well as bindings that were spells or incantations written on tablets (Graf 135).  It was a form of sympathetic magic (208).  What was done to a doll, tablet, or other representative object would, in turn, be done to the person or group of people that were the object of the magic (206).  Binding magic was also used for various purposes.  It could be used to keep someone from testifying against you in court or to bind someone to you for love or lustful purposes.   Sometimes binding magic was even used to keep a rival sporting team from beating your favorite (153).   This was such a popular use that there were laws forbidding chariot drivers from hiring people to bind their rivals (156).  This form of magic was generally used when an outcome was unknown (Graf 157).  By using this magical technique, the person casing the spell could feel as if they were doing something to help themselves rather than sitting by helpless.

Amulets are objects created to protect the owner from something or someone, usually some type of evil or a curse (18). Some were no doubt made from low quality materials, but amulets were also made out of higher end materials including semi-precious stones.  This could be because they lasted longer than the cheaper material, or because people believed that some of the stones had special properties that would aid them in their quest for protection.  These stones could be carved in to various shapes and inscribed words or a symbol.  No matter the construction technique or material, an amulet would have been worn by or carried on the person it was supposed to protect.  Amulets were also a magical technology that could be used by anyone regardless of their race, gender, or religion.  They could be used by anyone anywhere rather than just by people with certain standing or within specific religions (19).  This may be one reason why they were so popular.

Divination could take one of several forms from dream interpretation to the observation of dirt that had been thrown in the air. It was usually done for one of two main objectives. The first is what most modern day people associate divination with; that of knowing the future.  The other was more about confirmation wherein the querent wanted to know whether an action was approved by the Gods.  Both of these motives have important places in the Greco-Roman society.  Socrates believed that one of the items crucial to anyone’s success was the ability to know the future (Luck 262).   The Augers of the Roman Empire would check with the Gods for just about everything to make sure they were doing the correct things the correct way and that all their actions were approved by the appropriate deities (251). Like binding magic, divination was used as a way of getting rid of uncertainty and trying to put order to an otherwise chaotic world (158).

 

  1. Discuss the relative place and methodologies of magic within your personal religious/spiritual practice. (minimum 100 words)

I see my personal magical practices as being in in two different categories: That which I do in formal ADF ritual and that which I do outside of formal ritual.

In rituals I feel magic deeply when I Open the Gates, perform the Omen, direct the sacrificial or offertory energies to the Gods, and when I Call, Hallow, and Accept the Blessing.  When Opening the Gates, my magic is joined by that of the Gatekeeper.  Together we open the ways so that the lines of communication flow more efficiently between this realm and the upper and under worlds.  I am actively using energies in this act.  This is in contrast to the directing of the energies to the Gods and working with the Blessing.  In both of those cases, I am merely a vessel or a guide.  My powers are not involved in the transfer; they only make sure the energies get to where they need to go at as high potency as possible, kind of like the insulation on a copper wire is used to protect from current leakage.  The taking of the omen is another active form of ritual magic for me.  I ask my hands be guided as I chose the ogham and use inspiration as well as my knowledge to interpret what the Ogham means.  It is in these acts that I feel magic the strongest.

Outside of ritual I keep things rather simple.  I use candles primarily.  Depending on what I am doing I may dress them, carve symbols or words onto them, or use them in conjunction with herbs.  The day to day magic I perform is usually for mundane things like healing for someone, prosperity, or protection.  I also do divinations both with ogham and tarot.  These are done on “as needed” basis.

 

Practicum:

  1. Healing Work – Provide and explain one example of healing magic from an Indo-European culture, and write an ADF-style healing working based on that example. (min. 150 words for example explanation).

The example I am using was documented by Cato and is for the healing of a dislocated joint or broken bone.  First, the reader is instructed to find a “green reed, four or five feet long, split down the middle” (Luck 72).  They are then to have two people hold it at hip level.  While they chant a series of magical words, they are to tighten the parts until they are back in line.  They are then to “put iron on top of it”(72), hold them tightly while cutting mark in, presumably the reed, then tightly bind everything together.  They are then told that another magical chant must be performed every day for the spell to work (72).

This example reminds me of a home remedy that my Grandmother would talk about from her childhood.  Whenever one of us had a cold she would tell us: “If you have a cold, tie a slice of onion to the bottom of each foot.”  There are a lot of folk remedies like that floating around.  The difference between my Grandmothers remedy and the one listed above, is the use of magic words to seal the healing.

What I find particularly interesting about this example is the combination of the physical and the spiritual, or mental, elements of healing.  The instructions to bind the affected limb in what amounts to splints, speaks to a practical working knowledge of what will physically help heal the wound.  The addition of magic words speaks to the belief that other beings care about and will aid in the patients recovery.  The formula of Practical + Supernatural allows the healer to heal the physical aspect of the injury or illness as well as give the patient’s mind and psyche a reassurance that everything that can be done to heal them, has been done.   Having the patient recite the words, whether they understand the meaning or not, also allows the patient to feel that they play a part in their own healing and therefore that they have at least a little bit of control over their own fate.

 

ADF Core Order Healing Rite for a Cold

 

Sit or stand facing your alter.

Supplies Needed:

Offerings for Kindred and Being of Occasion

Beverage of Choice to receive the Blessing

Divination tool for Omen

Cup of hot tea

Honey

Spoon

Ring a bell or Knock Three times to indicate the beginning of the Ritual.

Purification

Anoint yourself with Palo Santo Water or other cleansing mixture.

” Wash away all Earthy cares. May the Spirit Rise Within.”

Two Powers

Center Yourself, Breathe deeply and connect to the Two Powers.

Honor the Earth Mother

                “ Earth Mother, You who support and sustain;  without whom we could not survive, I honor you. Earth Mother accept my offering.”

Spirit of Inspiration

Chant “Awen” 3 times.

Purpose and Precedent

“I come here tonight for healing for my cold.”

Sacred Center

“I honor the transforming fire. May my words rise on your flames.”

Offer oil to the fire

“I honor the wise well. May my words resound in your depths.”

Offer silver to the well.

“I honor the overarching Tree. May my spirit reach your heights and know your depths.”

Water the tree.

Opening the Gates

“Gatekeeper, Lord of the places between, I ask that you combine  your powers with mine and Let the Fire open as a gate, Let the Well open as a gate, let the Tree  span between the worlds. Let the Gates be OPEN!”

Kindred

                “Ancestors, those who’s wisdom spans the ages, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight.  Ancestors accept my offering.

“Spirits of Nature, those who keep watch over this realm, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight. Spirits of Nature accept my offering.

“Shining Ones, Patrons, Matrons, Eldest of all, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight. Shining Ones accept my offering.”

Being of Occasion

“Brigid, Goddess of Healing, I offer you a place of honor at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight. Brigid, accept my offering.”

Prayer of Sacrifice 

“Goddess Brigid, the Mighty Dead, the Nobel Ones, and the Shining Ones, I have given you offerings from my stores. I now offer this final sacrifice with honor and adoration, that you may be nourished and strengthened by it.  Holy Ones accept this sacrifice!”

Omen

Take Omen.  If it is good, proceed.  If not, make further offerings and try again.

Calling/Hallowing/Accepting the Waters

Return to your center and, if needed, re-attune to the Two Powers. Focus on opening yourself up to receive the blessings of Brigid and The Kindred and how you may use those blessings for the upcoming working.

                “I have honored Brigid and The Kindred.  I stand here and ask that you grant me a gift in return, such are the rules of Hospitality.  I am open and eager to receive your blessings and therefore call out:  GIVE ME THE WATERS!”

Hold cup with chosen beverage in both hands.  Envision the blessings offered by the Kindred and BOO infusing into the liquid.

“BEHOLD THE WATERS OF LIFE!”

                “I have given offerings and you have returned blessings upon me.  As I take in this drink, I will also take into myself the blessings you have granted”

Drink

Healing Working

Place cup of tea in front of you.

Add a teaspoon of honey.

Stir clockwise.

Envision warm healing energies swirling within the tea as you stir.

Say tree times:

                “Melt the virus

                                Soothe the throat

                                Stop the sneezing

                                Quiet the cough”

Drink the tea.

Unwinding

“Brigid, Thank you for aiding the working tonight. Brigid, I thank you”

“Shining Ones, Thank you for aiding the working tonight. Shining ones, I thank you.”

“Spirits of Nature, thank you for aiding the working tonight. Spirits of Nature, I thank you.”

“Ancestors, thank you for aiding the working tonight. Ancestors we thank you.”

“Gatekeeper, I ask that you once again join your powers with mine and let the fire again be a flame, let the well again be a well, and let the tree again be a tree. May the gates be closed!  Gatekeeper , thank you”

“Earth Mother, thank you for continuing to support and sustain. Earth Mother I thank you.”

Ring bell or knock 3 times the say:

“The rite is ended.”

Drink tea daily until the cold subsides.

 

 

  1. Warding Work – Provide and explain one example of warding or protection magic from an

Indo-European culture, and write an ADF-style warding working based on that example. (min.

150 words for example explanation)

Warding, or protective, work was a common type of magic.  One of the warding works that the Celts utilized was that of a caim.  A caim is a prayer of protection that is recited as a protective circle is drawn around a person or object (Matthews 328-329).  The circle is drawn with the outstretched finger of the right hand.  This was normally done to another person, an object, or even a place but it can be adapted to ward one ’s self.  The Caim was also said when banking the household fire for the night.  This was done by the female head of the household to ensure the life giving flame continued to burn through the overnight hours when there was no one to constantly tend it (329).  This not only protected the fire itself, but the entire household.  The hearth flame provided not only light and warmth, but was the medium by which meals were cooked.  Its continuation directly affected the continuation of the family unit.

 

ADF Core Order Warding Rite

 

Sit or stand facing your alter.

Supplies Needed:

Offerings for Kindred and Being of Occasion

Beverage of Choice to receive the Blessing

Divination tool for Omen

Person or Item to be protected

Ring a bell or Knock Three times to indicate the beginning of the Ritual.

Purification

Anoint yourself with Palo Santo Water or other cleaning mixture.

” Wash away all Earthy cares. May the Spirit Rise Within.”

Two Powers

Center Yourself, Breathe deeply and connect to the Two Powers.

Honor the Earth Mother

                “ Earth Mother, You who support and sustain;  without whom we could not survive, I honor you. Earth Mother accept my offering.”

Spirit of Inspiration

Chant “Awen” 3 times.

Purpose and Precedent

“I come here, tonight to ward (name person or object to be warded) against all that may threaten (him/her/it)”

Sacred Center

“I honor the transforming fire. May my words rise on your flame”

Offer oil to the fire

“I honor the wise well. May my words resound in your depths”

Offer silver to the well.

“I honor the overarching Tree. May my spirit reach your heights and know your depths.”

Water the tree

Opening the Gates

“Gatekeeper, Lord of the places between, I ask that you combine your powers with mine and Let the Fire open as a gate, Let the Well open as a gate, let the Tree span between the worlds. Let the Gates be OPEN!”

Kindred

                “Ancestors, those who’s wisdom spans the ages, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight.  Ancestors accept my offering.

“Spirits of Nature, those who keep watch over this realm, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight. Spirits of Nature accept my offering.

“Shining Ones, Patrons, Matrons, Eldest of all, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight. Shining Ones accept my offering.”

Being of Occasion

“Brigid, I offer you a place of honor at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight. Brigid, accept my offering.”

Prayer of Sacrifice 

“Goddess Brigid, the Mighty Dead, the Nobel Ones, and the Shining Ones, I have given you offerings from my stores. I now offer this final sacrifice with honor and adoration, that you may be nourished and strengthened by it.  Holy Ones accept this sacrifice!”

Omen

Take Omen.  If it is good, proceed.  If not, make further offerings and try again.

Calling/Hallowing/Accepting the Waters

Return to your center and, if needed, re-attune to the Two Powers. Focus on opening yourself up to receive the blessings of Brigid and The Kindred and how you may use those blessings for the upcoming working.

                “I have honored Brigid and The Kindred.  I stand here and ask that you grant me a gift in return, such are the rules of Hospitality.  I am open and eager to receive your blessings and therefore call out:  GIVE ME THE WATERS!”

Hold cup with chosen beverage in both hands.  Envision the blessings offered by the Kindred and BOO infusing into the liquid.

“BEHOLD THE WATERS OF LIFE!”

                “I have given offerings and you have returned blessings upon me.  As I take in this drink, I will also take into myself the blessings you have granted”

Drink

Warding Working

For Self-Protection:

Extend your right arm and point the index finger of your right hand. Visualize a beam of protective energy emanating from your fingertip.  Motion clockwise around your head three times while pointing your finger towards yourself as much as possible.

Repeat this line 3 X while motioning:

“Protected from all Ill am I. None shall hurt or injure me.”

When you have said the line 3X and motioned around yourself 3X, lower your arm and envision a shield or force field of protective energy surrounding you dispelling anything that may try and harm you.

Say “By the power of Brigid and all the Kindred I am protected!”

 

To Protect Another Person or Object.

Place the person or object to be protected in a space where you can comfortable walk around them. Extend your right arm and point your right index finger at the person or object to be protected.  Visualize a beam of protective energy emanating from your fingertip.  Walk clockwise around the person or object  three times while pointing your finger at them.  While doing this state:

Repeat this part 3 X while walking.

“Protected from all Ill is (she/he/name of object). None shall hurt or injure (him/her/it).”

When you have said the line 3X and walked around the person or object to be protected three times lower your arm and envision a shield or force field of protective energy surrounding the person or object dispelling anything that may try and harm them or it.

Say “By the power of Brigid and all the Kindred you are protected!”

 

 

Unwinding

“Brigid, Thank you for aiding the working tonight. Brigid, I thank you”

“Shining Ones, Thank you for aiding the working tonight. Shining ones, I thank you.”

“Spirits of Nature, thank you for aiding the working tonight. Spirits of Nature, I thank you.”

“Ancestors, thank you for aiding the working tonight. Ancestors we thank you.”

“Gatekeeper, I ask that you once again join your powers with mine and let the fire again be a flame, let the well again be a well, and let the tree again be a tree. May the gates be closed!  Gatekeeper, thank you”

“Earth Mother, thank you for continuing to support and sustain. Earth Mother I thank you.”

Ring bell or knock 3 times the say:

“The rite is ended.”

 

 

  1. Purification Work – Provide and explain one example of purification magic from an Indo-European culture, and write an ADF-style purification working based on that example. (min. 150 words for example explanation)

I turned to the Romans when looking for examples of purification magic.  The Romans were big on purification, so much so that an entire month was dedicated to it.  The Roman word “Februus” means purification.  This word eventually turned into the modern day February (Fowler 209).  A popular Roman purification method was that of lustration (209).  During a lustration ritual, sacrifices were carried as the priest processed around the thing to be purified.  The sacrifice was performed after the priest made a complete circuit.  If a village or town was to be purified, sacrifices may have been performed at the various entrances, each being performed following a procession around the village.  Herds of animals and fields were also purified in this manner.   The object of this ritual was to drive out any spirit that may want to do harm or anything that may act in opposition to the people, places, or things being purified (Dunstan 36).

 

ADF Core Order Purification Rite

 

Supplies Needed:

Offerings for Kindred and Being of Occasion

Beverage of Choice to receive the Blessing

Divination tool for Omen

Item to be purified

Tea light candle in a candle holder that can be carried.

A cup of water, alcohol, or other beverage.

A bowl or plate with a food offering.

 

Sit or stand facing your alter.

Ring a bell or Knock Three times to indicate the beginning of the Ritual.

Purification

Anoint yourself with Palo Santo Water or other cleaning mixture.

” Wash away all Earthy cares. May the Spirit Rise Within.”

Two Powers

Center Yourself, Breathe deeply and connect to the Two Powers.

Honor the Earth Mother

                “ Earth Mother, You who support and sustain;  without whom we could not survive, I honor you. Earth Mother accept my offering.”

Spirit of Inspiration

Chant “Awen” 3 times.

Purpose and Precedent

“I come here, tonight to purify (name person or item to be purified).”

Sacred Center

“I honor the transforming fire. May my words rise on your flame”

Offer oil to the fire

“I honor the wise well. May my words resound in your depths”

Offer silver to the well.

“I honor the overarching Tree. May my spirit reach your heights and know your depths.”

Water the tree

Opening the Gates

“Gatekeeper, Lord of the places between, I ask that you combine your powers with mine and Let the Fire open as a gate, Let the Well open as a gate, let the tree span between the worlds. Let the Gates be OPEN!”

Kindred

                “Ancestors, those who’s wisdom spans the ages, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight.  Ancestors accept my offering.

“Spirits of Nature, those who keep watch over this realm, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight. Spirits of Nature accept my offering.

“Shining Ones, Patrons, Matrons, Eldest of all, I offer you a place at my fire and request your aid in my working tonight. Shining Ones accept my offering.”

Prayer of Sacrifice 

“Mighty Dead, the Nobel Ones, and the Shining Ones, I have given you offerings from my stores. I now offer this final sacrifice with honor and adoration, that you may be nourished and strengthened by it.  Holy Ones accept this sacrifice!”

Omen

Take Omen.  If it is good, proceed.  If not, make further offerings and try again.

Calling/Hallowing/Accepting the Waters

Return to your center and, if needed, re-attune to the Two Powers. Focus on opening yourself up to receive the blessings of Brigid and The Kindred and how you may use those blessings for the upcoming working.

                “I have honored The Kindred.  I now stand here and ask that you grant me a gift in return, such are the rules of Hospitality.  I am open and eager to receive your blessings and therefore call out:  GIVE ME THE WATERS!”

Hold cup with chosen beverage in both hands.  Envision the blessings offered by the Kindred and BOO infusing into the liquid.

“BEHOLD THE WATERS OF LIFE!”

                “I have given offerings and you have returned blessings upon me.  As I take in this drink, I will also take into myself the blessings you have granted”

Drink

Purification Working

Place the object to be purified in a space where you can comfortably walk around it.

Pick up the candle and holder and process around the object to be purified.  When you have returned to the starting point Say:

“May the Kindred accept my offering of fire.”

Pick up the cup and process around the object to be purified.  When you have returned to the starting point say:

“May the Kindred accept my offering of Drink”

Pick up the plate or bowl that contains the food offering  and process around the object to be purified.  When you have returned to the starting point say:

“May the Kindred accept my offering of Food.”

Stand with your palms held over or facing towards the object. Say:

 “By these acts and in the name of all the Gods and Kindreds that which is harmful within (name object) is driven out, never to return.  All that remains is that which is good and helpful.  (Name of object) is made whole and clean! ”

After the rite let the candle burn until it extinguishes itself and take the drink and food outside.

 

Unwinding

 “Shining Ones, Thank you for aiding the working tonight.  Shining ones, I thank you.”

“Spirits of Nature, thank you for aiding the working tonight. Spirits of Nature, I thank you.”

“Ancestors, thank you for aiding the working tonight. Ancestors we thank you.”

“Gatekeeper, I ask that you once again join your powers with mine and let the fire again be a flame, let the well again be a well, and let the tree again be a tree. May the gates be closed!  Gatekeeper, thank you”

“Earth Mother, thank you for continuing to support and sustain. Earth Mother I thank you.”

Ring bell or knock 3 times the say:

“The rite is ended.”

  1. Introspection – Having done the above work, provide detail of your understanding of why self-knowledge and introspection are critical for working with magic and how you intend to pursue your own course of self-understanding. (min. 350 words)

                “Know thyself” was reportedly carved into one of the pillars at the temple at Delphi.  This is an important bit of advice for anyone, but especially for those doing any kind of magical work.  In order to make any kind of effective change, magical or mundane, you first need to know where you are now, and where you want to be.  This gives you solid beginning and ending points.  Without these basic things, you are just randomly shooting in the dark, to use an old cliché.  At this point it is important to remember that you must be honest with yourself about, not only your abilities, but about your motivations and the passion and will you have or don’t have, to make things work.  You have to know what you want .  If you don’t know where you are trying to go, you will never get there or it will take a very long time and you will waste precious energy and resources on the way.

The WHY is important as well.  Are you doing something because YOU want to, or because someone else thinks you should?  If you are not absolutely certain that something is what you want then there a good possibility that when you do get what you say you want,  you will end up just as miserable, or even more so.  Not only that, but much like not knowing here you want to go, you will have wasted time, energy, and resources for a result that you truly didn’t want.  This is also known as “be careful what you wish for.”

You also need to know what kind of biases you have. We all have them, but knowing what they are helps us better be able to watch out for when we may try to act on them.  This is especially important for divination.  If you are reading for someone else, you need to be able to neutralize the unconscious bias you have about situations so that you can give them a clean reading.  You don’t want to dump your baggage on an unsuspecting querent.  Basically, take the time to think and plan and know the what, where, and why before diving in.

I introspect in a few different ways. I find that writing things out helps me to focus so that I can connect the dots and start seeing patterns.  Sometimes my mind races too fast and skips steps.  Suddenly I’m in the middle of nowhere with no idea how I got there.  Writing or typing things in a journal forces me to slow down and pay attention to the details.  At that level, hidden patterns may start to emerge that I would have missed before.  I find that meditation, trance work, and divination are helpful and offer interesting insight into my inner world.  I always couple these other techniques with writing for the reasons listed above.

 Works Cited

Bonewits, Isaac. “Step by Step thorough a Druid Worship Ceremony”. Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship, Inc. Web. 2016. 1/10/2016

Dunstan, William E. Ancient Rome.  Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Lanham, MD. 2010. Print

Fowler, W. Warde. The Religious Experience of the Roman People. MacMillan and Co. LTD.  London, UK. Print

Graf, Fritz. Magic in the Ancient World. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA 1997. Print

Luck, George. Arcana Mundi. The John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD. 1985. Print

Mallory, JP. In Search of the Indo-Europeans. New York: Thames and Hudson, Inc.  1989. Print

Matthews, Caitlin & John. Encyclopedia of Celtic Wisdom. Element Books. Rockport, MA. 1994. Print

 

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